Military alliances had been abolished and demand arose for world peace and security. 2. 4. Soviet Union had tight control over 4. This transformation system was influenced by the world bank and the IMF in Russia, Central Asia and East Europe. 4. Ethnic Serbs opposed this, and a massacre of non-Serb Bosnians followed. Answer: Soviet system was introduced after Socialist Revolution in Russia in 1917. Indian military gets most of its hardware from Russia. (b) A large number of Indian writers and artists visited the USSR. “The Soviet Union lagged behind the West”. A multipolar world could also exist where no other power could dominate or the group of countries could participate in the international affairs. Questions Match the following: 4. Answer: Largest garage sale in history was resulted due to shock therapy to undervalue the valuable industries of the USSR to sell them at throwaway prices. Decrease in production of oil and natural gas, diminish in GDP growth rate also affected the share of oil sector in GDP. 2. Each of these basins is discussed. Ukraine (7) and Belarus (8). Name various provinces with which Yugoslavia had been broken in 1991? Examine the statement. (b) Fall of the Berlin Wall The WARSAW PACT, a military alliance held them together and the USSR was the leader of the bloc.  All oil trunk pipelines (except Caspian Pipeline Consortium ) are owned and operated by the state-owned monopoly Transneft and oil products pipeline are owned and operated by its subsidiary Transnefteproduct . Only the Communist Party was ruling over there and no opposition was allowed. People locked democracy and were snatched away their right to freedom of speech and expression. Russia has started some manufacturing units also to revive its economy. Russia and India share a vision of multipolar world order i.e. Ordinary people had been alienated and were exempted from enjoying the privileges and to participate actively in political affairs. This article considers the significance of Azerbaijani oil in three major battles of World War II: the battles of Moscow, Stalingrad and Kursk. 7. 2. 5. 3. And when flows of oil and gas revenue dropped dramatically for the Soviet Union, it lost control over eastern Europe without "losing on the battlefield for 50 years." 4. In Russia: In Eastern Europe which republic split into two? authoritarian making life difficult for citizens. information and technological revolutions. Proved reserves of oil and natural gas held by the Financial Reporting System (FRS) companies rose for both oil and natural gas in 2009, with oil reserves increasing at almost twice the rate of natural gas . (a) Hindi films and Indian culture were popular in the Soviet Union. Russian Oil Production As a major global producer and exporter of oil, natural gas, and coal, Russia’s economic growth is primarily driven by its fossil fuel reserves. Russia. 4. The Soviet system, however, became very bureaucratic and authoritarian, making life very difficult for its citizens. A separate Soviet gas industry was created in 1943. It is not completely clear whether the pursuit of Russian foreign policy objectives is the primary explanation for the actions of its energy firms. In the West, we have great economic Nobel laureates such as Hayek, Solow, Freidman. Ethnic Serbs opposed the breakirigup Several months after President Donald Trump was inaugurated in January 2017, SMW Partners was hired to lobby the White House on behalf of two high-profile clients from the former Soviet Union… Disintegration of Soviet Union gave an end to Cold War confrontations and to ideological disputes between two superpowers. India has been benefitted from its relationship on the issues like Kashmir, energy supplies, sharing information on international terrorism, access to Central Asia and balancing its relation with China. Large natural gas reserves discovered in Siberia and the Ural and Volga regions in the 1970s and 1980s enabled the Soviet Union to become a major gas producer. 3. 13. 7. Some sections of Soviet Society felt that Gorbachev should have moved much faster and were disappointed and impatient with him. These policy changes have already triggered a slowdown in oil-sector growth, particularly in Russia. 4. Fill in the blanks: “We have partially replaced the fall in oil drilling with drilling for gas producers,” he said. When and how did Russia revive its economy? As oil drained from the Soviet machine, the nation’s stability morphed into Russian chaos and a temporary political renewal. The Soviet Union became the world's leading producer of oil, coal, iron ore and cement; manganese, gold, natural gas and other minerals were also of major importance. 3. What is the new name of former USSR? Economic: 11. Sudden and complete switch to free trade was considered essential. 4. This issue was resolved quickly by making these republics as founding To democratise Soviet System and to normalise relations with the west. 9. Who was Gorbachev? It was a multi-dimensional relationship: Central Asia's abundant resources — including oil, natural gas, minerals and cotton — went toward sustaining the Soviet economic machine, and road, railway and pipeline networks linked the region to Russia. Short Answer Type Questions [4 Marks] Beginning in May 2005, oil from the southern sections of the Caspian Sea began pumping through a new pipeline (built by a BP-led consortium) to the Turkish seaport of Ceyhan. 4. (c) Ordinary people felt alienated from Central Asia. 5. Answer: (d) Crises in the Middle East, 4. (e) Even countries and provinces are fighting over river water. Why did people become dissatisfied 2. 5. With the disintegration of Soviet Union, military alliances came to an end and the world became unipolar. 4. (d) Due to non-participation of people, the government lost popular support from all sides. 1. 8. The US, the only superpower could dominate the world and make a unipolar world. Answe: The following factors helped Soviet Union becoming superpower after Second World War: The withdrawal of government subsidies pushed large sections of society into poverty and it emerged mafia to start controlling many economic activities. To loosen the administrative system. It systematically destroyed old system of social welfare. NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Political Science Chapter 3 are part of the Political Science Class 12 NCERT Solutions. 3. (d) But Society was divided into two sections towards Gorbacheve’s reforms and both of them had contradictory views towards him. Answer: 1. Azerbaijan, the oldest known oil producing region in the world, experienced an oil boom at the beginning of the 20th century and later served as a major refining centre in the former Soviet Union. substantial American interest in the USSR as an energy supplier. What were the political reasons for disintegration of Soviet Union? 3. Russian oil and natural gas industries have become key players in the global energy market, ... have received since the fall of the Soviet Union, including by raising the price these countries pay for natural gas to world market prices. based on ideology. Azerbaijan - oil, gas and energy. To keep the USSR abreast of the 2. 2. To democratise the Soviet System. He was forced by the following factors to seek reforms in Soviet Society: Natural gas. 2006 Edition, Table 3.2 Natural gas proven reserves by country, An Estimate of Undiscovered Conventional Oil and Gas Resources of the World, LUKoil to lose the lead soon. 3. American University International Law Review 7, no. 8. 2. Answer: 1. 2. Russia is also benefitted from India on ground of the second largest arms market for Russia. 4. Even other countries have also gained due to crossing of pipelines from their region and they have been paid a rent. 4. Very Short Answer Type Questions [2 Marks] The value of Ruble, the Russian ’ currency declined. 4. (Under Putin it has returned to 10-million barrels.) NATO intervention and bombing on Yugoslavia. In Dec 1991, under the leadership of Boris Yeltsin, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus declared themselves independent. represented by the communist party of the Soviet union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable to the people. Answer: The major consequences of the disintegration of the Soviet Union for countries like India can be analysed as follows: World Bank and IMF became powerful advisors due to their economic support to these countries during transitional period. Answer: Soviet system became so weak and Soviet economy stagnant due to the following reasons: started by the USSR. 4. When oil prices hovered around record highs in the early … Gas exploration, development, and distribution were centralized in the Ministry of Gas Industry, which was created in 1965. Balkan republics of Yugoslavia. (e) The fall of the symbolised Read the following passage (NCERT Textbook, page 18) carefully and answer the questions: Due to slow and stifling administration, the inability of system to correct mistakes lost popular support.  Strong growth in the Russian economy means that local demand for all types of energy sources (oil, gas, nuclear, coal, hydro, electricity) continues to grow. Russia's oil and gas companies The biggest Russian oil company is Rosneft followed by Lukoil , Surgutneftegaz , Gazprom Neft and Tatneft . 3.  In June 2006, Russian crude oil and condensate production reached the post-Soviet maximum of 9.7 million barrels (1,540,000 m3) per day. 1. 3. The Baltic and East European states wanted to join European Union and became the part of NATO. The Government withdrew subsidies and pushed people into poverty. 10. Identify two major oil and gas producers of Soviet Union. Which republic dominated in the USSR? IV. By Heede's calculation, government-run oil and coal companies in the former Soviet Union produced more greenhouse gas emissions than any other … The members of communist party felt that their power and privileges were eroding and Gorbachev was moving too quickly. The last time Russia had to deliberately close down a large swathe of its wells was more than 75 yea Exceeding production in 2000 by 3.2 Mbbl/d (510,000 m3/d). Explain. Just before Soviet oil production peaked in 1988 (the event walked hand in hand with a major drop in oil prices), the empire realized that it no longer had enough black gold to pay its bills. What was Soviet system? 3. 4. Filed Under: CBSE Tagged With: CBSE 12 Political Science, CBSE 12 Political Science The End of Bipolarity. A mafia had been emerged and started controlling many economic activities. US Energy Information Administration, International statistics, accessed 1 Dec. 2013. Russia is by far the world's largest natural gas exporter. Answer: 1917.  All oil trunk pipelines (except Caspian Pipeline Consortium) are owned and operated by the state-owned monopoly Transneft and oil products pipeline are owned and operated by its subsidiary Transnefteproduct. (a) Tajikistan witnessed a civil war that went on for ten years till 2001. 2. as it could not cope with the political and economic aspirations of people and resulted in: The East European countries which were the part of the Soviet Bloc, started to protest against their own With Comecon’s collapse and the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself, individual republics began to develop their own trading relations with the outside world. Identify two major oil and gas producers of Soviet Union. Read the following passage (NCERT Textbook, page 27) carefully and answer the questions: Figure 1 - Former Soviet Union oil production and price of oil, in $2010, based on BP data.  However, BP credits Russia with only 31.3 tcm as of 1 January 2014, which would place it in second place, slightly behind Iran (33.1 to 33.8 tcm, depending on the source). How did Shock Therapy affect trade and commerce of Russia? There was an absence of unemployment in Soviet Union. 1. of several provinces independently following a massacre of non-serb Bosnians. Drilling Down. 1. 2. Russia (3). (c) Change in the balance of power in the world order 3. 5. Boris Yeltsin took the command during these events as he got popular support of people in the elections and began to shake off centralised control. (iii) The US became the sole superpower and the ‘capitalist economy’ was now dominant economic system at international level. Haseeb Ahmed, Oil and Gas Analyst at GlobalData, comments: “The FSU is expected to witness the start of operations of 11 new-build gas storage sites by 2024. Also, the Soviet Union was an oil exporter, and at a lower price, it earned less profit for the oil it exported. Answer: The three features that distinguish the Soviet economy from that of a capitalist country like the US, can be summed up as follows: A separate Soviet gas industry was created in 1943. Arrange the following in chronological order: What is meant by Shock Therapy? 3. "Western Opportunities for Investment in the Oil Industry of the Former Soviet Union." Soviet system was bureaucratic and In what manner Gorbachev’s reform policy was protested? 5. The Soviet Union reached a peak of 12.58 million barrels per day (2.000 × 10 ^ 6 m 3 /d) in total liquids in 1988, and production had fallen to around 6 million barrels per day (950 × 10 ^ 3 m 3 /d) by the mid-1990s. Yugoslavia (6). It was based on the principle of egalitarian society and planned economy controlled by the state. Comment. (a) India received military hardware from Soviet Union. Answer: The causes of Soviet disintegration can be summed up as follows: 1. Oil and gas wealth — the impact on development prospects of CIS countries / 50 Wojciech Pa c z y ˜ s k i Attachment / 5 9 Answer: Gorbachev was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985. The USGS estimate of Russia's undiscovered oil is 22 billion barrels, second in the world only to those of Iraq.. “ The old system of social welfare was systematically destroyed”. What was Shock Therapy? In Eastern Europe: In 2016, it smashed crude oil production records two months running and, with plenty of new wells opening, output is set to soar. Even after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Central Asia kept many of its connections to Russia. Answer: During the Cold War era India and the USSR enjoyed a special relationship which made critics to say that India was part of the Soviet camp. 9. 3. What was the largest garage sale in history? Mention the methods of‘Shock Therapy’ amongst the former Second World countries. (e) Berlin wall. In eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia split peacefully into two, with the Czechs and the Slovaks forming independent countries. 10. Mention any two characteristics of Soviet Political System. divided Germany and eight east European countries of the Soviet Bloc replaced their Communist government resulting into disintegration of Soviet Union. Answer: 1. (d) Russian Revolution (1917) 4. (c) People enjoyed economic freedom. Chapter 3. 2. The NATO intervention and the bombing of Yugoslavia followed interethnic civil war. Map Based Questions [5 Marks] Multipolar system was surpassed to exist where no single power could dominate and a group of countries could play a crucial role in world politics like NAM Countries. Write an essay for or against the following proposition. Why did Gorbachev’s reform policy fail in spite of his accurate diagnosis of the problem? UK. (b) It gave aid and technical assistance for steel plants like Bhilai, Bokaro, Vishakhapatnam and machinery plants like Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. all institutions. (The Russian government holds just over 50% of its shares.) Although, on paper, Russia was only one of the fifteen republics then together constituted the USSR in reality Russia dominated everything, and people from other regions felt neglected and often suppressed. Russia (3). 1. His foray into the former Soviet Union and Iraq proved to be expensive failures. SUMMARY The Soviet Union, including its Republics and Autonomous Regions, although remaining the world's largest oil and gas producer, is seeking the co-operation of the international oil … Or (a) Czechoslovakia, split peacefully into two with the Czechs and Slovaks, forming independent countries. 2. 2. Answer: (i)-(c); (ii)-(d); (iti)-(a); (iv)-(e); (v)-(b), 5. 3. (c) After 1991, Yugoslavia broke \ apart with several provinces like Croatia, Slovania, Bosnia and Herzegovina declaring independence. All other non-OPEC producers registered a production growth of only 1 %. Soviet Union was unaccountable to people. 4. 5. Answer: (i) The disintegration of Soviet Union meant the end of Cold War confrontations which demanded the end of armed race and restoration of possible peace. 6. To keep the USSR abreast of information and technological revolutions at par the West. 2. (iv) This disintegration emerged in many new countries dividing Soviet Union into 15 independent countries alongwith their own aspirations and choices. 1. Yugoslavia (6). 3. (c) Disintegration of Soviet Union State ownership was the dominant owned and controlled by the Soviet state. Why did he seek to reform Soviet Society? Political and Administrative Causes: 4. (a) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan The Group operates in the former Soviet Union, Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. 1. Consequently Government subsidised basic necessities including health, education, children and other welfare schemes. Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks] Gazprom pursues the strategy of producing gas in the volumes adjusted by demand. Answer: Shock Therapy was a painful process of transition from an authoritarian socialist system to a democratic capitalist system. (c) Indian heroes from Raj Kapoor to Amitabh Bachhan are household names in Russia. “Gazprom is exporting 200 billion cubic metres per year to the European Union and Turkey, what Gazprom is calling the far abroad. Sources indicating Russia to have the largest proven reserves include the US CIA (47.6 trillion cubic meters), the US Energy Information Administration (47.8 tcm), and OPEC (48.7 tcm). 2. (b) Moscow’s method to deal with Chechen rebels and indiscriminate military bombings led to many human rights violation but for deter aspirations for independence. Of these, nine are planned and the remaining two are announced sites. (b) The severe conflict took place in the Balkan republics of Yugoslavia. 7. Privatisation led to new disparities. 5. The political and economic systems of all these countries were modelled after the USSR and collectively were called the second world. co¬existence of several world powers internationally, collective security, greater regionalism, democratisation with the decision-making through bodies like the UN. Economic Stagnancy: 4. The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining nuclear and military arsenals. (a) Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979) 1. Uzbekistan’s Gazli II and Russia’s Stepnovskoe II are the largest upcoming gas storage sites in the region, with respective capacities of 247 bcf and 199 bcf by 2024.” Land and productive assets were owned by the state only. 2. II. Mention some features of Soviet Society. Deprived of cheap oil and … (c) India and Soviet Union got mutual agreements to produce military equipments. mer USSR area are the major alternative to oil produced by OPEC countries. The internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions failed to meet the aspirations of the people. The party refused to recognise the urge of people in the fifteen different republics that formed the Soviet Union to manage their own affairs including their cultural affairs. The centralisation of authority in > vast land. Most of the institutions of the Soviet state needed reform : the one-party system Lack of productivity and technology created shortage of food which increased food imports every year. 15 Republics. 4. We have experience in all major producing regions with a domestic emphasis on Texas and Oklahoma, as well as international experience in Mexico, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, … Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech stifled people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons. , forming independent countries peacefully morphed into Russian chaos and a massacre of non-Serb Bosnians producers a... 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